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Hand Tools

All of the pictures and information about hand tools shown below is a rough guide to show some of the most common and useful hand held tools used in woodwork.

There are pictures to show each tool but not to show the different types available of the same tool because it is only a guide. Some hand tools have been left out because I am focusing on ones that are specifically woodwork tools.

Chisel:
What it's used for:
A chisel has a chamfered blade on the end that is driven into the material to remove unwanted timber or to carve it out. Force to the chisel is either applied by hand or can be increased by using a mallet to strike the back of the chisel.

Parts it consists of:
These hand tools are made of metal which allows the blade to be sharpened when it becomes blunt. The handle is also usually metal with a rubber case for comfort and grip although some chisel handles are made from plastic or wood. The chisels blade can be a range of widths to suit almost any type of cut that needs to be made.
chisel

Clamps:
What it's used for:
Clamps are fastening devices used to create inward pressure to secure objects or materials together to prevent movement or separation.

Clamps are usually used to hold things like woodwork joints together until an adhesive that has been applied has dried or to secure objects to things such as benches. Some clamps are known as cramps but they still have the same purpose which is to hold or secure something.

Parts it consists of:
There are many different types of clamps such as bar clamps, sash cramps, G cramps, quick grips and pipe clamps just to name a few and all of those clamps work in a similar fashion. Most clamps are metal with some plastic inserts and they work with a turning handing which brings the two sides closer together applying pressure to the object being clamped.

clamp1  clamp2
Hammer:
What it's used for:
Hammers come in a variety of types but they all have the same purpose which is to deliver an impact or force such as pounding or striking to an object. The most common uses for these hand tools include driving nails, breaking up objects and fitting parts.

Parts it consists of:
The head of a hammer is made from strong metals because the front is the part which is used for striking and the back may have one of many different components which could be a claw or ball. The handle is usually made of metal as well and covered with rubber for comfort or grip but it can also be made from wood.
hammer
Hand Saw:
What it's used for:
A hand saw comes in many different styles but they are all operated by hand movement and they are used to cut materials with its blade. Common tasks for hand saws include cutting straight edges, making angled cuts and cutting curves although different types of saws are needed to carry out all of these tasks.

Parts it consists of:
All saws have handles which can be made from plastic, wood or metal and they all have blades which are metal and serrated for cutting different materials. Saws can have different sized blades which can be really skinny like a copping saw for cutting curves or very fat like a tenon saw for making straight cuts.
Hand saw
Mallet:
What it's used for:
Mallets are very similar to hammers because they look almost identical only with a bigger head and they are also used to deliver an impact only the difference is they do not damage the object being struck like a hammer does so they are really good for knocking wood into place.

Parts it consists of:
A mallets head is made from wood or rubber and it contains no metal so that it doesn't damage the material you are working with which makes it a useful hand tool for moulding materials.
mallet
Marking Gauge:
What it's used for:
A marking gauge is used to mark lines across timber and it works by adjusting the gauge to increase or decrease how far a line is from the edge of the timber.

Parts it consists of:
Marking gauges are mainly wooden and they have two parts, the first is a shaft which has something sharp sticking out of the end like a nail for marking and a head which slides up and down the shaft to increase or decrease measurements and it can also be locked into place with a plastic or metal screw.
marking guage
Marking Knife:
What it's used for:
A marking knife is one of the most simple hand tools which is used to severe the fibres of wood when it is drawn over a line, this creates a very neat and accurate edge when the timber is cut with a saw because the saw follows the crease made from the knife.

Parts it consists of:
A marking knife can be thin and fully metal with a sharp blade on the end although they usually have a wooden or plastic handle connected to the steel blade to increase this hand tools comfort and accuracy.
marking knife

Nail Punch:
What it's used for:
Nail punches are metal rods which have a small blunt edge which is placed on a nail while the back of the punch is struck with a hammer to drive the nail below the timbers surface.

There is also another version of the nail punch called a centre punch but this is used to mark the centre of something like a hole before drilling.

Parts it consists of:
the nail punch is basically a small metal rod which is shaped at one end and is able to drive nails below a surface. Both ends are blunt and at the back of the nail punch the metal is wider to allow for a hammer to strike it without slipping off.

nail punch
Planer:
What it's used for:
A planer is used to shape or thin out a piece of timber by removing small amounts of wood and it can also remove rough patches of timber. this type of hand tool is good for removing the amounts of timber that cannot be removed by sandpaper.

Parts it consists of:
Common planers that many people buy are metal with a double wooden handle feature to increase the user's precision and efficiency. There is a small rectangular hole at the bottom of the planers metal base which houses the adjustable blade.
planer

Sandpaper:
What it's used for:
Sandpaper is used to remove a small amount of material to either create a smooth surface or to remove a layer of something such as paint.

This is a hand tool that is best used with a sanding block because it is more comfortable for the user and it creates a flat surface of the sand paper to be wrapped around.

Parts it consists of:
Sandpaper is a basic hand tool which is just paper with abrasives attached to it with an adhesive. Sandpaper is available in different grit sizes which are shown by a number on the back.

Low numbers like 40 means it is very coarse and higher numbers like 300 means it is very fine which will give a smoother finish. The numbers on the back of sandpaper simply means how many abrasive particles there are per inch of sandpaper.

sandpaper

Screwdriver:
What it's used for:
Screwdrivers are woodwork tools that are used for driving screws into materials or for securing or loosening parts on machinery.

Parts it consists of:
Screwdrivers come in a range of lengths and they have plastic handles which are sometimes covered with rubber and a metal shaft that has one of three main drive types on the end.

These drive types can be flat heads, Phillips heads or pozidrives but you will most likely only see two of these drive types in woodwork which are flat heads and Phillips heads.

screwdriver
Sliding Bevel:
What it's used for:
This hand tool is used for marking angled lines on a piece of timber and it can be adjusted to almost any angle. It works by holding the stock against the timber and moving the blade to the desired angle.

Parts it consists of:
The sliding bevel contains two parts which include the blade made from steel and the stock which is usually made from wood. It has a locking feature so that when the angle you want is achieved it can be locked into place. Dovetail joints are an example of something that a sliding bevel is excellent for marking out.
sliding bevel
Tape Measure:
What it's used for:
A tape measure is a common hand tools used to measure lengths of wood with ease and it has a locking feature to prevent it from rolling back into the case. Tape measures come in a range of lengths which can be from as little as a metre to as much as over 10 metres.

Parts it consists of:
A tape measure has either a metal case or a tough plastic or rubber case so that it does not break when dropped from high places and it contains a flexible metal ruler available in a range of many lengths that can roll and unroll. These features enable the tape measure to be small and portable so it can be carried in a pocket.
tape measure
Try Square:
What it's used for:
Try squares are woodwork tools used for drawing perfectly straight lines on materials such as wood and they can also be used to see how straight a piece of woods edge is either before or after it has been cut.

Parts it consists of:
Try squares have two parts and the first is a wooden handle which is placed against the edge of an object and the second part is a broad metal blade facing 90° to the handle which is used to create the straight lines or to check the squareness of an object.
try square
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